Geol. 115 Study Guide for Lesson Nine

What do you need to know (meaning understand, not just memorize) to do spectacularly well on Quiz 9? The essential terms and concepts are listed below. Writing out answers to each of the following would be an excellent way to prepare.

(Be able to define or recognize the definition of these terms and understand their useage in context). You can find the information in the web lesson -- on your test, do not expect exactly the same wording or examples as in your lesson. It would be a good idea to cross reference the defintions in the lesson with those you find in the texts.)

1) Essential Vocabulary

Synthetic, artificial, faux, simulant, Auguste Verneuil, flame fusion, curved striae, Czochralski pulling, seed crystal, skull melting, hydrothermal solution, "bomb", nail head spicule, flux solution, chemical vapor deposition, bort, HTHP process, DiamondSure, DiamondView, cultured vs natural pearl, seed pearl, blister pearl, cyst pearl, Mabe pearl, bead nucleation, tissue nucleation, faience, crown glass, flint glass, foilbacks, vulcanite, Bakelite, celluloid, lucite, colorless synthetic spinel, synthetic rutile, strontium titanate, YAG, CZ, Moissanite, doublet, triplet, intarsia, pietra dura, Soude, garnet and glass doublet.

2) Essential Concepts

Meaning and types of synthetic gems and alternate terms used to describe them. Examples of copy synthetics and artificial ones. Various reasons for making synthetics and their potential uses. Three basic ways gems are formed (melt, solution, vapor). History of synthetic gems and the role of Auguste Verneuil. For each of the gem synthesis processes know: the most important versions (for example under melt processes: flame fusion, Czochralski and skull), how they work, what gems are produced and for what purposes. For each type of synthetic gem what are the characteristics (if any) by which they can be identified. Why are "synthetic" cabochon gems (like coral) usually only good simulants. What are the two ways in which industrial and gem diamonds are synthesized, which corporations are doing this? How does the jewelry and gem industry view the introduction of sythetic diamonds? What are their concerns and how have they responded to the challenge? What is the history and current position of cultured pearls in the market, differences between freshwater and saltwater cultured pearls. What are the typical colors, sizes and relative worth of the various types of saltwater cultured pearls. How is a gem simulant defined and how is different from a synthetic -- what is a fake? Overview of the history of gem simulation, examples of early and modern simulants. Which materials are used to simulate which gems and how is each type distinguished? In regards to glass and plastic: what are the major types, their uses and how might they be detected. Be able to discriminate the major diamond simulants and how each might be identified. What are assembled stones? Be able to identify pictures or descriptions of various assembled gems and to discriminated between those that are rarely and those that are commonly used as "fakes". What are the general guidelines for detecting and caring for assembled stones.

3) Pronunciation Guide

(Clicking on the term will temporarily take you to a new web page to hear the pronunciation of the word. Depending on your browser configuration either put away the audio window, or use the back button to return to the list.)

YAG (yttrium aluminum garnet), GGG (Gadolinium gallium garnet), Verneuil, boule, Czrochralski, Sumitomo, DeBeers, Gemesis, Mikimoto, Akoya, faience, plique a jour, copal, Swarovski, Moissanite, intarsia, pietra dura, Mabe, Soude.