Geol. 198B Homework #9: Synthetics and Simulants 20 pts. **

The answers to the following questions will be found in the text reading assignment, and the assigned web essays for Lesson 9.

Required Format: A 2 point penalty will be deducted for not following the format described (even if all the answers are correct)!

Send the answers to me, as an email through WebCT. Use "Homework #9" as the subject line.

As the body of the email, the answers should be arranged vertically, single file, like so:

1. b

2. quartz

3. False

4. etc....

All except one of the required answers for Homework #9 are either a multiple choice letter, a single word fill in the blank or, True or False. Question #10 requires a written answer.

When the time period for homework submission has passed, grades will be posted which you may then view using the "My Grades" function of WebCT through the course home page.


1. Which synthetic material, once sold under the name of "Titania" is, like white spinel, a synthetically produced colorless form of a naturally occuring gem?

a. synthetic rutile

b. strontium titanate

c. cubic zirconia

d. Hannay diamonds

e. CVD diamond

2. The organization which sets general guidelines for commercial advertising in the US (including the gem and jewelry industries) is the:

a. Better Business Bureau (BBB)

b. Federal Trade Commission (FTC)

c. Department of the Treasury

d. American Gem Trade Association (AGTA)

e. Consumer's Union

3. You are looking at a flat bottomed, oval, unset opal: when you turn it to the side and look with your loupe, you see two layers (opal and matrix). There is a sharp clear line between the opal layer and the matrix layer. You conclude it is a/an:

a. boulder opal

b. triplet

c. Mabe opal

d. intarsia

e. doublet

4. "Helenite" is:

a. a rare natural gem found near the eruption site of Mt. St. Helen's volcano

b. a natural glass tektite found at the site of the Mt. St. Helen's eruption

c. a man-made glass gem synthesized by melting pure ash from the Mt. St. Helen's eruption.

d. an ordinary man-made glass gem simulant, falsely advertised and sold as being made from Mt. St. Helen's eruption ash.

e. a form of beryl named in honor of Helen Keller

5. Assembled stones are always "fakes" made in order to deceive. True or False.


6. The carrot shaped crystal produced through some gem synthesis processes (like flame fusion for example) is called a/an:


7. When small pieces of gem material are assembled within metal channels or compartments to make a design or picture, the product is a/an:

a. inlay

b. intaglio

c. intarsia

d. micro-mosaic

e. pietra dura

8. Veil-like inclusions are often indicators of synthetic ________ made by the ____________company from France.

a. turquoise/Fremy

b. ruby/Fremy

c. coral/Gilson

d. emerald/Gilson

e. spinel/Verneuil

9. The Lyman text says that even though synthetic citrine and amethyst cost about the same as natural material, some manufacturers of jewelry preferentially use them because:

a. the public prefers synthetics

b. they have a higher refractive index than natural quartz

c. they are softer and therefore easier to cut than natural

d. they can be produced in large pieces of uniform color

e. the manufacturers own stock in the synthetics factories

10. In your own words, in six sentences or fewer, clearly distinguish between a synthetic, a simulant, and a fake. Give an example of each.






** "A Word to the Wise": In order to get the full 20 points on this, and every other homework, you must have all the correct answers, they must be in proper format as described above AND your email to me must be received and logged in by WebCT before the closing time for the assignment. As there are inevitable computer downtimes, disconnects and other such issues, I suggest that you do not wait until the very last moment to attempt to submit the work.